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Sorcerer/Wiccan
Wz
An ancient wizard uses Papyromancy to read books within seconds.

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Witches and sorcerers are beings who magially practice the art of witchcraft and magic, a sorcerer can master atleast two elementals like earth and fire or even use magic to obtain or bestow powers, or to use magic with different effective ways.

Powers & Abilities:

Even though a sorcerer can bestow powers, they have the common witch powers:

Scrying - can search locations with a map and necklace

Clear sight - can percieve events by crystalization

Zapping - can zap objects to create effects

Elemental Harness - can control atleast two elements

Spell casting - can cast magic spells

Potion Making - can cook up potions for effective results

Levitation - some witches can focus their PK energy into levitating or hovering off the ground.

Elemental Connections:

All

A sorcerer,Witch,magician,wiccan or wizard is a being who practices and harnesses the art of Magic.

Wicca (pronounced [ˈwɪkə]) is a Neopagan religion and a form of modern witchcraft. It is often referred to as Witchcraft or the Craft[1] by its adherents, who are known as Wiccans or Witches. Its disputed origins lie in England in the early 20th century,[2] though it was first popularised during the 1950s by Gerald Gardner, a retired British civil servant, who at the time called it the "witch cult" and "witchcraft", and its adherents "the Wica".[3] From the 1960s the name of the religion was normalised to "Wicca".[4]

Wicca is typically a duotheistic religion, worshipping a Goddess and a God, who are traditionally viewed as the Triple Goddess and Horned God. These two deities are often viewed as being facets of a greater pantheistic Godhead, and as manifesting themselves as various polytheistic deities. Nonetheless, there are also other theological positions within the Craft, ranging from monotheism to atheism. Wicca also involves the ritual practice of magic, largely influenced by the ceremonial magic of previous centuries, often in conjunction with a liberal code of morality known as the Wiccan Rede, although this is not adhered to by all Witches. Another characteristic of the Craft is the celebration of seasonally based festivals known as Sabbats, of which there are usually eight in number annually.

There are various different denominations within Witchcraft, which are referred to as traditions. Some, such as Gardnerian and Alexandrian Wicca, follow in the initiatory lineage of Gardner; these are often collectively termed British Traditional Wicca, and many of their practitioners consider the term "Wicca" to apply only to these lineaged traditions. Others, such as Cochrane's Craft, Feri and the Dianic tradition, take primary influence from other figures and may not insist on any initiatory lineage. Some of these do not use the term "Wicca" at all, instead preferring to be referred to only as "Witchcraft", while others believe that all traditions can be considered "Wiccan.

Powers & Abilities:Edit

Besides using spells to bestow and grant powers, witches and sorcerers possess the natural powers of wiccans which includes:

  • Spell Casting: The ability to cast magical spells
  • Magicka: The ability to harness defensive or offensive power spells
  • Scrying: The ability to use a map and a necklace or valuable to track down and locate beings
  • Potion Making: The ability to create magical potions from ingredients
  • Levitation/Hovering: The ability to compact psi energies into hovering or even levitating
  • Magical Zapping: The ability to magically zap objects to cause magic effects ( Human to frog etc), Is also the power to create a blast of energy from body or magical tool
  • Clairvoyance: The ability to percieve information and or future events by mentally linking to another being


EtymologyEdit

Through late 14th century Old French magique, the word "magic" derives via Latin magicus from the Greek adjective magikos (μαγικός) used in reference to the "magical" arts of the Magicians (Greek: magoi, singular mágos, μάγος); the Zoroastrian astrologer priests. Greek mágos is first attested in Heraclitus (6th century BC, apud. Clement Protrepticus 12) who curses the Magians and others for their "impious rites". Greek magikos is attested from the 1st century Plutarch, typically appearing in the feminine, in μαγική τέχνη (magike techne, Latin ars magica) "magical art".[citation needed]

Likewise, sorcery was taken in ca. 1300 from Old French sorcerie, which is from Vulgar Latin *sortiarius, from sors "fate", apparently meaning "one who influences fate". Sorceress appears also in the late 14th century, while sorcerer is attested only from 1526.[citation needed]

[edit] Common features of magical practiceEdit

[edit] RitualsEdit

Magical rituals are the precisely defined actions (including speech) used to work magic. Bronisław Malinowski describes ritual language as possessing a high “coefficient of weirdness,” by which he means that the language used in ritual is archaic and out of the ordinary, which helps foster the proper mindset to believe in the ritual.[6] S. J. Tambiah notes, however, that even if the power of the ritual is said to reside in the words, “the words only become effective if uttered in a very special context of other action.”[7] These other actions typically consist of gestures, possibly performed with special objects at a particular place or time. Object, location, and performer may require purification beforehand. This caveat draws a parallel to the felicity conditions J. L. Austin requires of performative utterances.[8] By “performativity” Austin means that the ritual act itself achieves the stated goal. For example, a wedding ceremony can be understood as a ritual, and only by properly performing the ritual does the marriage occur. Émile Durkheim stresses the importance of rituals as a tool to achieve “collective effervescence,” which serves to help unify society. Psychologists, on the other hand, describe rituals in comparison to obsessive-compulsive rituals, noting that attentional focus falls on the lower level representation of simple gestures.[9] This results in goal demotion, as the ritual places more emphasis on performing the ritual just right than on the connection between the ritual and the goal. However, the purpose of ritual is to act as a focus and the effect will vary depending on the individual.

[edit] Magical symbolsEdit

Magic often utilizes symbols that are thought to be intrinsically efficacious. Anthropologists, such as Sir James Frazer (1854–1938), have characterized the implementation of symbols into two primary categories: the “principle of similarity,” and the “principle of contagion.” Frazer further categorized these principles as falling under “sympathetic magic,” and “contagious magic.” Frazer asserted that these concepts were “general or generic laws of thought, which were misapplied in magic.”[10]

[edit] The Principle of SimilarityEdit

The principle of similarity, also known as the “association of ideas,” which falls under the category of “sympathetic magic,” is the thought that if a certain result follows a certain action, then that action must be responsible for the result. Therefore, if one is to perform this action again, the same result can again be expected. One classic example of this mode of thought is that of the rooster and the sunrise. When a rooster crows, it is a response to the rising of the sun. Based on sympathetic magic, one might interpret these series of events differently. The law of similarity would suggest that since the sunrise follows the crowing of the rooster, the rooster must have caused the sun to rise.[11] Causality is inferred where it should not have been. Therefore, a practitioner might believe that if he is able to cause the rooster to crow, he will be able to control the timing of the sunrise.

[edit] The Principle of ContagionEdit

Another primary type of magical thinking includes the principle of contagion. This principle suggests that once two objects come into contact with each other, they will continue to affect each other even after the contact between them has been broken. One example that Tambiah gives is related to adoption. Among some American Indians, for example, when a child is adopted his or her adoptive mother will pull the child through some of her clothes, symbolically representing the birth process and thereby associating the child with herself.[12] Therefore, the child emotionally becomes hers even though their relationship is not biological. As Claude Lévi-Strauss would put it: the birth “would consist, therefore, in making explicit a situation originally existing on the emotional level and in rendering acceptable to the mind pains which the body refuses to tolerate…the woman believes in the myth and belongs to a society which believes in it.”[13]

Symbols, for many cultures that utilize magic, are seen as a type of technology. Natives might use symbols and symbolic actions to bring about change and improvements, much like Western cultures might use advanced irrigation techniques to promote soil fertility and crop growth. Michael Brown discusses the use of nantag stones among the Aguaruna as being similar to this type of “technology.”[14] These stones are brought into contact with stem cuttings of plants like manioc before they are planted in an effort to promote growth. Nantag are powerful, tangible symbols of fertility, so they are brought into contact with crops in order to transmit their fertility to the plants.

Others argue that ritualistic actions are merely therapeutic. Tambiah cites the example of a native hitting the ground with a stick. While some may interpret this action as symbolic (i.e. the man is trying to make the ground yield crops through force), others would simply see a man unleashing his frustration at poor crop returns. Ultimately, whether or not an action is symbolic depends upon the context of the situation as well as the ontology of the culture. Many symbolic actions are derived from mythology and unique associations, whereas other ritualistic actions are just simple expressions of emotion and are not intended to enact any type of change.

[edit] Magical languageEdit

The performance of magic almost always involves the use of language (in Western civilization, mainly Latin). Whether spoken out loud or unspoken, words are frequently used to access or guide magical power. In "The Magical Power of Words" (1968) S. J. Tambiah argues that the connection between language and magic is due to a belief in the inherent ability of words to influence the universe. Bronsilaw Malinowski, in Coral Gardens and their Magic (1935), suggests that this belief is an extension of man’s basic use of language to describe his surroundings, in which “the knowledge of the right words, appropriate phrases and the more highly developed forms of speech, gives man a power over and above his own limited field of personal action.”[15] Magical speech is therefore a ritual act and is of equal or even greater importance to the performance of magic than non-verbal acts.[16] Yet not all speech is considered magical. Only certain words and phrases or words spoken in a specific context are considered to have magical power.[17] Magical language, according to C. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards's (1923) categories of speech, is distinct from scientific language because it is emotive and it converts words into symbols for emotions; whereas in scientific language words are tied to specific meanings and refer to an objective external reality.[18] Magical language is therefore particularly adept at constructing metaphors that establish symbols and link magical rituals to the world.[19]

Malinowski argues that “the language of magic is sacred, set and used for an entirely different purpose to that of ordinary life.”[20] The two forms of language are differentiated through word choice, grammar, style, or by the use of specific phrases or forms: prayers, spells, songs, blessings, or chants, for example. Sacred modes of language often employ archaic words and forms in an attempt to invoke the purity or “truth” of a religious or a cultural ‘golden age.’ The use of Hebrew in Judaism is an example.[21] Another potential source of the power of words is their secrecy and exclusivity. Much sacred language is differentiated enough from common language that it is incomprehensible to the majority of the population and it can only be used and interpreted by specialized practitioners, (magicians, priests, shamans, even mullahs.).[22][23] In this respect, Tambiah argues that magical languages violate the primary function of language: communication.[24] Yet adherents of magic are still able to use and to value the magical function of words by believing in the inherent power of the words themselves and in the meaning that they must provide for those who do understand them. This leads Tambiah to conclude that “the remarkable disjunction between sacred and profane language which exists as a general fact is not necessarily linked to the need to embody sacred words in an exclusive language.”[21]

[edit] MagiciansEdit

Main article: Magician (paranormal)A magician is any practitioner of magic; therefore a magician may be a specialist or a common practitioner, even if he or she does not consider himself a magician.[25] All that is required is the possession of esoteric knowledge, traits, or expertise that are culturally acknowledged to harbor magical powers.

Magical knowledge is usually passed down from one magician to another through family or apprenticeships, though in some cultures it may also be purchased[26]. The information transferred usually consists of instructions on how to perform a variety of rituals, manipulate magical objects, or how to appeal to gods or to other supernatural forces. Magical knowledge is often well guarded, as it is a valuable commodity to which each magician believes that he has a proprietary right.[27]

Yet the possession of magical knowledge alone may be insufficient to grant magical power; often a person must also possess certain magical objects, traits or life experiences in order to be a magician. Among the Azande, for example, in order to question an oracle a man must have both the physical oracle (poison, or a washboard, for example) and knowledge of the words and the rites needed to make the object function.[26]

A variety of personal traits may be credited to magical power, though frequently they are associated with an unusual birth into the world.[28] For example, in 16th century Friuli, babies born with the caul were believed to be good witches, benandanti, who would engage evil witches in nighttime battles over the bounty of the next year’s crops.[29]

Certain post-birth experiences may also be believed to convey magical power. For example a person’s survival of a near-death illness may be taken as evidence of their power as a healer: in Bali a medium’s survival is proof of her association with a patron deity and therefore her ability to communicate with other gods and spirits.[30] Initiations are perhaps the most commonly used ceremonies to establish and to differentiate magicians from common people. In these rites the magician’s relationship to the supernatural and his entry into a closed professional class is established, often through rituals that simulate death and rebirth into a new life.[31]

Given the exclusivity of the criteria needed to become a magician, much magic is performed by specialists.[32] Laypeople will likely have some simple magical rituals for everyday living, but in situations of particular importance, especially when health or major life events are concerned, a specialist magician will often be consulted.[33] The powers of both specialist and common magicians are determined by culturally accepted standards of the sources and the breadth of magic. A magician may not simply invent or claim new magic; the magician is only as powerful as his peers believe him to be.[34] In different cultures, various types of magicians may be differentiated based on their abilities, their sources of power, and on moral considerations, including divisions into different categories like sorcerer, witch, healer and others.

[edit] WitchcraftEdit

Main article: WitchcraftIn non-scientific societies, perceived magical attack is an ideology sometimes employed to explain personal or societal misfortune.[35] In anthropological and historical contexts this is often termed witchcraft or sorcery, and the perceived attackers 'witches' or 'sorcerers'. Their maleficium is often seen as a biological trait or an acquired skill.[36] Known members of the community may be accused as witches, or the witches may be perceived as supernatural, non-human entities.[37] In early modern Europe and Britain such accusations led to the executions of tens of thousands of people, who were seen to be in league with Satan. Those accused of being satanic 'witches' were often practitioners of (usually benign) folk magic,[38] and the English term 'witch' was also sometimes used without its pejorative sense to describe such practitioners.[39]

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Witches:Edit

Johann Albrecht Adelgrief 1636 !d. 1636 German Executed after claiming to be a prophet.[5]
Arriens, MarigjeMarigje Arriens 1591 !ca. 1520–1591 Dutch Burned to death for sorcery.
Barthe, AngeleAngéle de la Barthe 1275 !ca. 1230–1275 French Found guilty of sexual relations with the devil and burned to death.[6]
Bateman, MaryMary Bateman 1809 !ca. 1768–1809 English Convicted of fraud and murder, and alleged to be a witch; hanged to death.[7]
Bernauer, AgnesAgnes Bernauer 1435 !ca. 1410–1435 German Convicted of witchcraft and thrown in the Danube to drown, following accusations by her father-in-law Ernest, Duke of Bavaria.
Bien, MergaMerga Bien 1603 !1560s–1603 German Convicted as part of the Fulda witch trials and burned to death.
Birgitta, LassesLasses Birgitta 1550 !d. 1550 Swedish The first woman executed for witchcraft in Sweden; beheaded.
Bishop, BridgetBridget Bishop 1692 !ca. 1632–1692 English (emigrated to British America) The first person to be tried and executed during the Salem witch trials.[8]
Bonanno, GiovannaGiovanna Bonanno 1789 !d. 1789 Italian A widow and beggar who sold to her neighbours potions and spells intended to kill people. Accused of sorcery and hanged to death.[9]
Borcke, SidoniaSidonia von Borcke 1620 !1548–1620 Pomeranian Confessed to murder and witchcraft under torture; beheaded and burned.
Burroughs, GeorgeGeorge Burroughs 1692 !ca. 1650–1692 American Congregational pastor, executed as part of the Salem witch trials.[10]
Chantraine, AnneAnne de Chantraine 1622 !1605–1622 French Burned to death.
Chauderon, MichéeMichée Chauderon 1652 !d. 1652 Swiss Confessed under torture to summoning demons and was the last person executed for socrcery in Geneva.[11]
Cheveron, NyzetteNyzette Cheveron 1605 !d. 1605 Belgian Confessed to being a witch; was strangled and burned to death.
Clarke, ElizabethElizabeth Clarke 1645 !ca. 1565–1645 English The first woman persecuted by the Witchfinder General, Matthew Hopkins; hanged to death.
Corey, GilesGiles Corey 1692 !ca. 1611–1692 English (emigrated to British America) Crushed to death for refusing to plea during the Salem witch trials.
Corey, MarthaMartha Corey 1692 !1620s–1692 English (emigrated to British America) Hanged to death during the Salem witch trials.
Curtens, HelenaHelena Curtens 1738 !1722–1738 German One of the last people to be executed for witchcraft in Germany.
Delvaux, JeanJean Delvaux 1595 !d. 1595 Belgian Roman Catholic monk; beheaded.
Deshayes, CatherineCatherine Deshayes 1680 !ca. 1640–1680 French aka La Voisin. Burned to death following the Affair of the Poisons.
Doughty, ThomasThomas Doughty 1578 !d. 1578 English Nobleman and explorer accused by Sir Francis Drake of witchcraft, mutiny and treason. Executed by beheading.
Eastey, MaryMary Eastey 1692 !1634–1692 English (emigrated to British America) Hanged during the Salem witch trials
Eriksdotter, AnnaAnna Eriksdotter 1704 !1624–1704 Swedish The last person to be executed for sorcery in Sweden.
Francesco, MatteucciaMatteuccia de Francesco 1428 !d. 1428 Italian Confessed to having flown on the back of a demon; burned to death.
Gardiner, JeaneJeane Gardiner 1651 !d. 1651 British Executed in Bermuda.
Garnier, GillesGilles Garnier 1573 !d. 1573 French Serial child murderer; convicted of witchcraft and lycanthropy, and burned to death.
Glamis, JanetJanet, Lady Glamis 1537 !d. 1537 Scottish Accused of witchcraft by King James V; burned to death.
Glover, AnnAnn Glover 1688 !d. 1688 Irish (emigrated to British America) Last person to be hanged for witchcraft in Boston.
Goguillon, PeronnePeronne Goguillon 1679 !d. 1679 French Burned to death; one of the last women to be executed for witchcraft in France.
Good, SarahSarah Good 1692 !1655–1692 American One of the first to be convicted in the Salem witch trials.
Grandier, UrbainUrbain Grandier 1634 !1590–1634 French Convicted following the Loudun possessions and burned to death.
Guilladot, BertrandBertrand Guilladot 1742 !d. 1742 French Priest who confessed to having made a pact with the devil.
Ham, MechteldMechteld ten Ham 1605 !d. 1605 Dutch Confessed under torture and was burned to death.
Hausmannin, WalpurgaWalpurga Hausmannin 1587 !d. 1587 Austrian Midwife who confessed to child murder, witchcraft and vampirism; burned to death.
Henot, KatharinaKatharina Henot 1627 !1570–1627 German Postmaster; burned to death.
Heur, AdrienneAdrienne d'Heur 1646 !1585–1646 French Burned to death.
Horne, JanetJanet Horne 1727 !d. 1727 Scottish Last British person to be executed for sorcery; burned to death.
Horsnas, ElinElin i Horsnäs 1611 !d. 1611 Swedish Beheaded after her second trial for witchcraft.
Howe, ElizabethElizabeth Howe 1692 !1635–1692 Brtish (emigrated to British America) Hanged during the Salem witch trials.
Jacobs, GeorgeGeorge Jacobs 1692 !1620–1692 American Hanged during the Salem witch trials.
Jonsdotter, MäretMäret Jonsdotter 1672 !1644–1672 Swedish Beheaded.
Junius, JohannesJohannes Junius 1628 !1573–1628 German Tortured and then burned to death during the Bamberg witch trials.
Kemp, UrsulaUrsula Kemp 1582 !ca. 1525–1582 English Confessed to witchcraft and was hanged.
Koldings, AnnaAnna Koldings 1590 !d. 1590 Danish Burned to death.
KolgrimKolgrim 1407 !ca. d. 1407 Greenlandic Burned to death.
Kruckow, ChristenzeChristenze Kruckow 1621 !1558–1621 Danish Noblewoman who confessed to cursing the marital bed of a rival; beheaded.
LeatherlipsLeatherlips 1810 !1732–1810 American Native American leader who was sentenced to death for witchcraft and executed with a tomahawk.[12]
Martin, SusannahSusannah Martin 1692 !1621–1692 English (emigrated to British America) Executed during the Salem witch trials.
Matsdotter, MalinMalin Matsdotter 1676 !1613–1676 Swedish Burned to death.
Meath, PetronillaPetronilla de Meath 1324 !ca. 1300–1324 Irish Burned to death.
Nurse, RebeccaRebecca Nurse 1692 !1621–1692 English (emigrated to British America) Hanged during the Salem witch trials
Nypan, LisbethLisbeth Nypan 1670 !ca. 1610–1670 Norwegian Cunning woman accused of making people sick to earn money, burned to death.
Paisley witchesPaisley witches 1697 !d. 1697 Scottish Also known as the Bargarran witches, the last mass execution for witchcraft in western Europe.[13]
Palles, AnneAnne Palles 1693 !1619–1693 Danish The last person to be officially executed for witchcraft in Denmark; beheaded.
Pappenheimer FamilyPappenheimer Family 1600 !d. 1600 German Tortured and burned to death.
Parker, AliceAlice Parker 1692 !d. 1692 American Hanged during the Salem witch trials.
Parker, MaryMary Parker 1692 !d. 1692 American Hanged during the Salem witch trials.
Pauer, MariaMaria Pauer 1750 !1730s–1750 Austrian The last person to be executed for witchcraft in Austria; beheaded.
Pedersdotter, AnneAnne Pedersdotter 1590 !d. 1590 Norwegian Burned to death.
Pendle witchesPendle witches 1612 !d. 1612 English
Plainacher, ElisabethElisabeth Plainacher 1583 !1513–1583 Austrian The only person to be executed for witchcraft Vienna; burned to death.
PolissenaPolissena of San Macario 1571 !d. 1571 Italian Burned to death.
Proctor, JohnJohn Proctor 1692 !ca. 1632–1692 American Hanged during the Salem witch trials.
Pudeator, AnnAnn Pudeator 1692 !d. 1692 American Hanged during the Salem witch trials.
Punasuomalainen, MarkettaMarketta Punasuomalainen 1658 !1600s–1658 Finnish Cunning woman, burned to death.
Redd, WilmotWilmot Redd 1692 !1600s–1692 American Hanged during the Salem witch trials.
Repond, CatherineCatherine Repond 1731 !1662–1731 Swiss Strangled and burned to death.
Rognvaldsson, JonJòn Rögnvaldsson 1625 !d. 1625 Icelandic Burned to death.
Saenger von Mossau, Maria RenataMaria Renata Saenger von Mossau 1749 !1680–1749 German One of the last to be executed for witchcraft in Germany.
Sampson, AgnesAgnes Sampson 1591 !d. 1591 Scottish Midwife, garrotted and burned to death during the North Berwick witch trials.
SoulmotherSoulmother of Küssnacht 1577 !d. 1577 Swiss Burned to death.
Spandemager, GydeGyde Spandemager 1543 !d. 1543 Danish Burned to death.
Spliid, MarenMaren Spliid 1641 !ca. 1600–1641 Danish Burned to death.
StedelenStedelen 1400 !d. ca. 1400 Swiss Confessed under torture to summoning demons; burned to death.
Waterhouse, AgnesAgnes Waterhouse 1566 !ca. 1503–1566 English The first woman executed for witchcraft in England; hanged.
Weir, ThomasThomas Weir 1670 !1599–1670 Scottish Strangled and burned to death.
Wildes, SarahSarah Wildes 1692 !1627–1692 English (emigrated to British America) Hanged during the Salem witch trials.
Willard, JohnJohn Willard 1692 !ca. 1672–1692 American Hanged during the Salem witch trials.
Witches of BelvoirWitches of Belvoir 1618 !d. 1618 English A mother and two daughters, the daughters were hanged.
Witches of WarboysWitches of Warboys 1593 !d. 1593 English Alice Samuel and her family, hanged.
Young, AlseAlse Young 1647 !ca. 1600–1647 American The first person recorded to have been executed for witchcraft in the American colonies, hanged.
Zdunk, BarbaraBarbara Zdunk 1811 !1769–1811 Polish Burned to death.
Zippel, AnnaAnna Zippel 1676 !d. 1676 Swedish Beheaded.
Zippel, BritaBrita Zippel 1676 !d. 1676 Swedish Beheaded.

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